◊ Advise patients 10% of the total calorie intake should come from linoleic acid. Serum cholesterol can be reduced by a diet low in total fat and higher in MUFAs and PUFAs.
◊ Reduce dietary cholesterol intake to less than 300 mg daily by limiting meats, whole milk, cheese, and eggs.
◊ “Low cholesterol” on a food label can be misleading. A cholesterol-free product, such as stick margarine, can still be high in saturated and trans fatty acids, which elevates blood cholesterol.
◊ Dietary saturated and trans fatty acids have a grater effect on serum cholesterol than dietary cholesterol.
◊ The consumption of soluble fibers may decrease serum cholesterol.
◊ Wise food choices to prevent heart disease are unsaturated fats found in liquid vegetable oils, nuts, and seeds, and omega 3 unsaturated fats found in fatty fish such as sardines, salmon, and shellfish.
◊ Saturated and trans fats can increase total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol. Both types should be limited.
◊ Interesterified fat may be listed on food labels as fully hydrogenated oil.